Papers in Arts and Humanities <p><em>Papers in Arts and Humanities (PArtsHum)</em> is an open access, peer-reviewed journal for research in arts, literature, philosophy, theology and social sciences published by the Partium Christian University. The published papers are thematically gathered, in order to provide a multidisciplinary approach, seeking to generate discussion and trigger fresh insights.</p> en-US (Julianna BORBÉLY) (Roland-Attila SZABÓ) Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Book Review. Székedi Levente’s Limitele supraviețuirii <p>The recent publication of the volume Limitele supraviețuirii. Sociologia maghiară din Transilvania după 1945 [The Limits of Survival: Hungarian Sociology in Transylvania After 1945], signed by Székedi Levente, is a notable contribution to the study of the Transylvanian Hungarian sociology, the author’s playground being, for the time being, little frequented by other researchers. The analysis of the post-1945 period, made “on the grassroots,” from the perspective of survival, focusing on sociologists such as József Venczel or Lajos Jordáky, as well as other intellectuals, makes the reader part of a stage of adaptation and transformation of the Transylvanian Hungarian sociology in the context of an austere regime. After 1948, when sociology was eliminated as a science, we are the spectators of a long process of sociologists’ resistance and disguise of sociological research, under the umbrella of institutions other than sociological ones. The “escape directions” covered areas such as: political economy, folklore, history, social history, linguistics. The reappearance of Korunk magazine in 1957 led “cautiously” to the rehabilitation of sociology in the Hungarian culture in Romania. The author of the volume emphasizes the importance of the magazine’s editor-in-chief, Professor Ernő Gáll, in this whole process of re-establishing sociology and the Gusti School, analyzing the first articles, true professions of faith that stage the new action plans and research. The volume Limitele supraviețuirii. Sociologia maghiară din Transilvania după 1945 is about the Hungarian sociology of Transylvania in the complicated historical chapters of the period after August 23<sup>rd</sup>, 1944, for two decades, while at the same time frankly addressing the situation of the Hungarian minority in Transylvania. In this sense, it is worth mentioning the multidisciplinary and dynamic character of the work, necessary for any effort of political, historical, and sociological understanding of that era.</p> Gabriela Cătălina Danciu Copyright (c) 2022 Gabriela Cătălina Danciu Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Book Review: "Seldom in the Nick of Time": Emil Sîrbulescu's Literatura americană și provocarea etnicității <p style="margin-bottom: 0.35cm;">In 2020, the distinguished professor and scholar from the University of Craiova, Emil Sîrbulescu published the above mentioned book with a view to consolidating the academic research in Romania pertaining to race and ethnicity in the context of American culture and literature. If in the title the readers are threatened with the perspective of a magnum opus—“the challenge of ethnicity”—in the subtitle items seem to be subdued and thus confined to the still complex and complicated space of the African-American novel.</p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0.35cm;">Following the introduction, “About cultural diversity,” a first part of the book is dedicated to that particular challenge, as implying the “construction of a multicultural model.” The second part details “the maturing of the African-American novel,” whereas the third provides the readers with a case-study, i.e. Toni Morrison’s works. And last, but not least, the section devoted to conclusions addresses a question that might prove emblematic—whether “the African-American literature still exists.” Our purpose was to highlight both the issues discussed by the author and his solid contribution to the field.</p> Dan Horațiu Popescu Copyright (c) 2022 Dan Horațiu Popescu Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Impact of Oral Health Education Difficulties in Disadvantaged Primary Schools <p>The inadequate social integration of young people from disadvantaged regions is compounded by poor health and lifestyle, which manifests itself as mechanisms of educational disadvantage. Pupils have less access to the resources they need to develop their skills in their home environment, which should be adapted to their specific educational needs with specialized teachers. In this segment of the population, the time spent on health was inadequate even before online education was introduced due to the pandemic. The segregation has worsened their situation, and the lack of digital tools has not reduced the gap. We aimed to explore the lifestyles of primary school pupils in disadvantaged regions to extend the research to pupils with special educational needs and to understand their health behavior through dental status and time spent on oral health, which determines their life chances. The study was conducted in three primary schools in disadvantaged regions in the Abaúj region, Hungary, and 318 pupils (mean age: 10.5±2.5 years) underwent dental screening and survey examinations. The questionnaire focused on nutrition, physical activity, family microenvironment, health behavior, and educational processes during the pandemic. The majority of the students live in large families. Most students visit the dentist only when they have a toothache; 21.6% do not exercise outside school; 19.1% have already consumed alcohol. Their DMFT average is 5.6±3.5. Also, 32.7% of the students had a device for online education. A firm increase in the level of preventive activities in minority schools, with the involvement of special education teachers, is crucial for social inclusion and health.</p> Ildikó Faragó, Timea Egri, Andrea Rucska Copyright (c) 2022 Ildikó Faragó, Timea Egri, Andrea Rucska Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Theoretical Aspects of Social Enterprises <p>Social enterprises are given special attention from a scientific and public policy point of view. In everyday life, we see them as organizations that can provide solutions to various social problems. From an academic perspective, they represent a new research topic with its own interdisciplinary nature. They have been examined mainly from the point of view of management and organizational culture. In terms of scientific analysis, the newly developed research area of social economy and social enterprises is still in the conceptualization phase. The theoretical and methodological framework for research measurements need to be finalized. In this study, we seek to answer the question of how social economy—in particular, the perception of social enterprises in international and Romanian literature—is changing as a result of economic and social changes in space and time. We examine the factors along which definitions of the social enterprise within social economy are attempted, and the indicators that facilitate the investigation of the social impact of social enterprises.</p> Katalin Gál, Rita-Gizella Pásztor Copyright (c) 2022 Katalin Gál, Rita-Gizella Pásztor Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Designing Authenticity in Virtual Museum Tours <p>The paper focuses on the virtual tours that major institutions feature as part of their sites. As these tours often promise an authentic experience, the question of what means here arises. Since such programs do not simply serve to show digital images of museum objects but also convey a quasi-presence, the paper proposes to examine the authenticity of the experience of the virtual tour in comparison to the physical one. On the other hand, it also looks at the possible authenticity of museum exhibits in the virtual space. To do this, not only the notion of authenticity needs to be clarified, but also that of the virtual. Following Walter Benjamin’s approach, the paper examines what conception of time can constitute authenticity. Upon the concept of authenticity remaining the same in the case of the virtual, the paper opposes two positions: one is the historian’s view, and the other is that of the postmodern cultural critic. A comparison of their possible arguments aims to show that whatever we bring up against the virtual can also be played off—at least partly—against the traditional museum. In conclusion, it argues that these two museum forms are still part of the same museum paradigm.</p> Adrienne Gálosi Copyright (c) 2022 Adrienne Gálosi Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Beautiful past awaits us <p style="margin-bottom: 0.35cm;">Grasping the concept of transience or time has been a basic theme in art; hence it is no surprise that Proust also tried to search for the lost time. However, many people try the impossible: to capture the ephemeral. In any case, transience is a fundamental theme of art, although its representability is always questionable. As Jauss (1952/1996) writes, “time has a special relationship with narrative art” (p. 5). However, the notion of time is inherently difficult to define. As St. Augustine’s saying goes—which now has become a catchphrase—“What then is time? If no one asks me, I know; if I want to explain it to a questioner, I do not know” (Augustine, 2006, p. 242). According to Henri Bergson (1889) time is the central question of metaphysics. If this puzzle were solved, everything would be solved. Time is perceived only in its transience. Borges wrote “time is the substance I am made of” (1956–1960/1964, p. 234). The static nature of visual art—prevalent until videos and video installations emerged—makes it particularly problematic to show a phenomenon that can only be perceived in its transience. The great challenge for art is how to depict this elusiveness. The eternal question is how we can be the same and yet different. What remains is memory. Memories are partly individual, and it is largely memories that constitute us. Thus, the topic of my paper is the representation of time, more precisely that of the passing of time, and of memories in contemporary art and the possible attitudes of the artists to stop the past, since remembering is also a rewriting and reinterpretation of the past.</p> Andrea Bordács Copyright (c) 2022 Andrea Bordács Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Use of Time Reorder as a Literary Plot Device <p>The concept of time is deeply rooted within the field of literature; not only does it present itself in literary works in the form of theme or symbol. It can also be viewed in the reflection of the time in which the piece was written; but, most importantly in the context of this paper, it plays an essential and indispensable role as a plot device when constructing the narration. The modification of these expressions of time varies in accordance with the author’s views and purposes for their literary work. Thus, instances of toying with the base structure of time flow occur. This paper aims to display the employment of time reordering as a plot device in order to conclude whether this manner of writing was beneficial to the works in which it is depicted. This analysis will take into consideration a variety of advantages that time reordering could provide, from adding a sense of mystery, chaos, or irony, to much more intricate plot, structure or even subtext benefits. To be able to encounter all of the mentioned benefits, this paper will discuss a selected number of fictional literary works from the Gothic-like historical novel Hawksmoor by Peter Ackroyd to the contemporary novel The Stone Gods by Jeanette Winterson. The term of time reordering within this paper will refer to the abandonment of a linear plot line and the approach of multiple timelines or a hazardous presentation of events.</p> Diana Maria Panaitescu Copyright (c) 2022 Diana Maria Panaitescu Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Vesions of Sacred Time in Germanic Mythology <p>Germanic mythology offers one of the most ambiguous representations of the universe. Time has a special connotation as the mortality of the gods conditions their response to the challenges set by destiny before them. Much of their existence depends on the way they accomplish their quest to find the ultimate answer. In the Germanic myths time can be cosmic corresponding to the creation of the world or eschatological as the end of the universe is inevitable and certain. In between these two moments the gods need to discover the answer to the meaning of their lives and their place in the universe.</p> Andreea Popescu Copyright (c) 2022 Andreea Popescu Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Backward Time of Genocide <p lang="en-US">In the article the notion of time in the context of the phenomena of a genocide will be analyzed. Genocide is almost never perceived by public consciousness as it progresses The present time of genocide, as it is experienced by its participants and witnesses, displays features similar to taboos. How too hard to accept for consciousness, it is forced out of the conscious memory of its surviving actors. Consequently, it seems to be a taboo for social memory too. As a result, the very recognition of the fact of genocide usually takes place many decades or even generations after the genocide itself. Przemysław Czapliński coined a term “A retrograde disaster” (Katastrofa wsteczna), as to describe Holocaust of Jews in Poland during the II world war. The point of this term is intended to describe an event that occurred mostly unnoticed and unrecognized in its importance. This was the case of Jews’ pogroms in Poland, happening during the II world war, and shortly after. The public discussion on this topic started in 2000, after Jan Tomasz Gross’ publication. National Museum of the Holodomor Genocide in Kiev was founded in 2010, even though it is devoted to memorialize the events from 1932-33. The analysis of the specificity of the time of genocide will be based on a few chosen examples.</p> <p lang="en-US"><br><br></p> Krzysztof Gajewski Copyright (c) 2022 Krzysztof Gajewski Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Care in Hard Times from the Perspective of Elderly Care Workers <p>The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has deepened and reshaped the care crisis both on personal and organizational levels. The study aims at answering how and in what form the symptoms of the care crisis appear in elderly care, which is one of the most important but undervalued fields of professional care. The focus of the study lies on what additional burdens the primarily female employees bear due to performing both paid and reproductive labor at the same time. The primary focus of the qualitative case study, conducted in the summer of 2020 and the spring of 2021, was to explore the effects of the coronavirus pandemic. The preliminary assumption is that the measures to curb the pandemic exacerbated the pre-existing organizational crisis and made it even more visible. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in a mid-sized town located in the Southern Great Plain in Hungary with the key stakeholders of care management: heads of institutions and mostly middle managers in coordinating roles. In the second phase of the study, focus group interviews were conducted with non-executive carer workers. The purpose of the interviews was to explore their personal perceptions and narratives of care.</p> Anikó Vida Copyright (c) 2022 Anikó Vida Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Changes in the Time Spent on Physical Activities of University Students Before and During the COVID-19 Outbreak <p>In Spring 2020 in many countries various restrictions were implemented to try to prevent the spread of the coronavirus disease. Among these Covid-19 measures lockdowns had a big impact on people’s lives. The opportunities for physical activities have been reduced since people had to manage working or learning from their homes. This research paper focuses on the changes of the time spent on physical activities of university students. Our intention is to reveal the enhancing factors for a positive and negative change in the frequency of physical activity. The analyses are based on the data for the University of Szeged of the COVID-19 International Student Well-Being Study elaborated and conducted by the University of Antwerp in Spring 2020. The online questionnaire, filled out by 1808 students from the University of Szeged, included two questions concerning the frequency of doing moderate and vigorous physical activity before and during the COVID-19 outbreak. The analyses of the changes in the time spent on physical activities focuses on the associations with socio-demographic factors and health status. Results indicate that increase in physical activity was typical for women, students in a relationship, and those who moved from their place of residence. A decline in physical activity has been found to be characteristic for younger students. Having a health risk condition turned out to have no effect on changes in physical activity, but satisfaction with health is associated with the increase or decline in physical activity.</p> Anikó Vincze Copyright (c) 2022 Anikó Vincze Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0200